Discussion Part I: Assessment and Care of Patients With Cardiovascular Conditions

Many cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarctions are a common problem in the acute care setting. Thus it is essential for you, as the advanced practice nurse caring for acute patients, to identify potential signs and symptoms of complications. Although some cardiac disorders require outpatient treatment and management, other procedures such as CABGs or valve replacements are more common and frequently require major interventions. In your role with acute cardiac patients, you must evaluate symptoms and determine how to treat patients. For this Discussion, consider potential diagnoses, treatment, and/or referral options for the patients in the following 3 case studies.

Case Study 1

Tom is 56-year-old African American male who presented to the ED with chest pain radiating to his back. The pain has been continuous for 1 hour. The patient complains of shortness of breath. The pain has not been relieved with rest. The patient’s vitals are: 99.1-98-18-198/110. The patient’s cardiac enzymes are negative. Labs results are as follows:

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  • Na 134
  • K 4.1
  • Cr 1.8
  • BUN 42
  • Glucose 248
  • WBC 13.1
  • Hbg 14.1
  • Hct 44.2
  • Plt 236
  • EKG sinus rhythm no ekg changes
  • Consider a differential diagnosis for the patient in the case study you selected. Think about the most likely diagnosis for the patient.
  • Think about a treatment and management plan for the patient. Be sure to consider appropriate dosages for any recommended pharmacologic and/or nonpharmacologic treatments.
  • Consider strategies for educating patients and families on the treatment and management of the cardiac disorder.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the differential diagnosis for the patient in the case study you selected. Explain which is the most likely diagnosis for the patient and why. Include an explanation of unique characteristics of the disorder you identified as the primary diagnosis. Then, explain a treatment and management plan for the patient, including appropriate dosages for any recommended treatments. Finally, explain strategies for educating patients and families on the treatment and management of the cardiac disorder.


Cardiovascular Conditions

Cardiovascular conditions are diseases that involve the heart and blood, vessels. They include stroke, heart failure, thromboembolic disease, and congenital heart disease. According to the characters of the health condition experienced by Tom, he is likely to be suffering from heart failure which is a serious condition that needs immediate medical attention before it causes devastating effects. Most common signs of heart disease are difficulty in breathing after a moderate physical exercise, discomfort, unexplained pain, faster heartbeat and dizziness (Ponikowski et al., 2016). Heart diseases mostly affect individuals at their senior adult age which increases its probability in Tom

A proper diagnosis and lab test to ensure adequate diagnosis and treatment is essential to avoid medical errors. Differential diagnosis is therefore important at this point to help eliminate other conditions related to heart failure which can cause the application of the wrong medication. Tests that can be performed are an ultrasound to determine the amount of blood in the heart with each heartbeat to decide if it is healthy or an abnormal amount (Yancy et al., 2016). Electrophysiology is performed to check and exclude the availability of ventricular systolic dysfunction. It identifies arrhythmias and the presence of conduction delay abnormalities.

Treatment of heart failure is directed towards improving the symptoms and preventing the progress of the disease. Acute decompensating is important to re-establish adequate oxygen supply to all the body organs. It entails ensuring airways; breathing and blood circulation are sufficient and healthy in the body (Ponikowski et al., 2016). Chronic management can also play a critical part in the treatment process of heart failure. Treatment of underlying causes is the first approach towards treating heart failure. In addition to the treatment options, modification of behaviors and lifestyle is also important for the healing process to be effective. Fluid restriction in the body is essential to reduce fluid retention and true hyponatremic status of individuals. Through community awareness programs, medical practitioners should educate the public about the likely causes of heart failure disease and ways of preventing them…

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