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ESSAY: Benchmark – Part B: Literature Review

Part A of this assignment will be attached. Feedback on PICOT stated to define susceptible young patients.

In Part A, you described the population and quality initiative related to your PICOT (Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time to achieve the outcome) statement. In this assignment, you will formalize your PICOT and research process.
Use the GCU Library to perform a search for peer-reviewed research articles. Find five peer-reviewed primary source translational research articles.
In a paper of 1,250-1,500 words, synthesize the research into a literature review. The literature review should provide an overview for the reader that illustrates the research related to your particular PICOT. Include the following:
Introduction: Describe the clinical issue or problem you are addressing.
Methods: Describe the criteria you used in choosing your articles
Synthesize the Literature: Part A: Discuss the main components of each article (subjects, methods, key findings) and provide rationale for how this supports your PICOT; Part B: Compare and contrast the articles: Discuss limitations, controversies, and similarities/differences of the studies.
Areas of Further Study: Analyze the evidence presented in your articles to identify what is known, unknown, and requires further study.
You are required to cite five to 10 sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


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The process of general anesthesia is very critical especially for very young susceptible patients. One of the conditions that make the administration of anesthesia very critical is malignant hyperthermia. The sensitivity of this condition is even more when it comes to surgical care settings since the patient is not admitted for further monitoring like is the case in other care settings. Some of the symptoms of malignant hyperthermia include high fever, increased heart rate, and muscle rigidity. The susceptibility of the condition can be as result of genetic mutation making it an inherited disorder. Most of these susceptible patients may easily succumb in the process of undergoing anesthesia since they may not be easily resuscitated.  Therefore, there has to be an effective medication for timely response in such ambulatory surgical settings.

For a very long time, Dantrolene has been used as the medication of choice when it comes to MH. However, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of Ryanodex as compared to Dantrolene especially in ambulatory care settings. The comparative study has previously been brought out through a PICOT question with the population being susceptible young patients, the expected outcome being effective control of malignant hyperthermia and the time is preoperative and recovery time. Based on five scholarly articles, the essay will present a literature review to critically expound on what other scholars say concerning the clinical issue.

Methods: Criteria for Choosing the Articles

The first criteria I used in choosing the articles, is by ensuring they capture the details of the clinical issue. By going through an abstract, I am able to understand that the article is about malignant hyperthermia and the various options available in responding to the condition especially among children who in this case are the susceptible patients. Since the clinical issue is about medical concerns, I opted to narrow my search to medical databases such as PubMed, Medline, and Medscape among others.

The other consideration I made in selecting the articles is the scholarly aspect. The areas of critical concern were whether the article had the information about the author, the year of publication had to be within five years, the articles also ought to have had bibliographies at the end of the paper, written using terms meant for the medical field. Other than such considerations, the audience of the articles had to be evaluated as that formed the basis of the illustrations within the paper itself. The articles ought to have been evaluated for quality by peer reviewers who are experts in the field.

Synthesize the Literature

The first article is by Lu, Rosenberg, Brady and Li (2016). The article emphasizes the rare nature of Malignant hyperthermia which is a fatal pharmacological disorder. Although epidemiological research of the disorder is limited to inpatients, the article emphasizes the prevalence of the disorder among those patients discharged from ambulatory surgical centers.

The method entailed analyzing the New York State Ambulatory Surgical datasets from 2002 to 2011. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of MH as a result of anesthesia were identified based on the International Classification of diseases (Lu et al., 2016). The prevalence of the disorder was assessed through demographic, clinical as well as ASC characteristics.

The results indicated that the prevalence rate of the recorded MH diagnosis in ASC patients can be estimated to be 1 in every 500,000 patients and depends on the surgical procedure (Lu et al., 2016). This article supports my PICOT since it provides the baseline through existing facts which makes this research study necessary to be undertaken.

Another article is by Kollmann-Camaiora et al. (2017). The authors emphasized the risk of MH in children being higher than in any population. The article shows that children below 15 years are the most susceptible.

The methodology employed by these scholars is a comparative analysis of many articles. The authors in the article indicates that Ryanodex can be used to provide faster response towards children which have been diagnosed with MH as compared to Dantrolene (Kollmann-Camaiora et al., 2017). The use of Ryanodex has proven to be more efficient as it provides faster response and hence avoids critical issues such as patients getting into critical conditions such as coma, cardiac arrest and in case of any delays in administration, it helps avoid intravascular coagulation. Unlike Dantrolene, this article emphasizes that Ryanodex provides stability towards the patient in less than a minute (Kollmann-Camaiora et al., 2017). The article supports my PICOT since it responds to the question of comparison in the PICOT question…

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