NUR2003: Cerebrovascular Accident Essay

MAS847 Case Study Scenario Mrs Greta Balodis My case study is of Greta Ainija Balodis. She is a 75year old female. She is suffering from right cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and atrial fibrillation. She has a past medical history of trans-ischaemic attack (TIA), Hypertension and three falls in last six months. She also had history of appendectomy done in 1973, a family history of the death of her sister who died of breast cancer in 1995. Recently, while gardening, Greta has a sudden headache, dizziness and nausea for which she was diagnosed with right sided cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and atrial fibrillation. In this case study, I will present the anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, definition, signs and symptoms and treatment of CVA. Anatomy and physiology of Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) The Central Nervous System and the whole body: The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system that regulates the entire bodily function. It comprises of brain, and spinal cord as the main organs that serves as the anatomical and functional centre which directly or indirectly controls, or at least influences, nearly every organ in the body .The central nervous system functions and coordinates the whole body system by bringing all the activities of the body system together and regulating them smoothly. It brings all the information together, makes decisions based on regarding the previously stored information making a proper sense of the information. It is responsible for performing the complex integrative functions of human language, consciousness, learning, perceiving, thinking and memory enabling us to adapt to situations that less complex organisms could not Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) also refer to as stroke, is a common cerebrovascular disorder affecting the central nervous system. It refers to the condition when the normal blood supply to the brain and spinal cord is affected due to any vascular abnormalities (Pellico 2013, p. 1245). Stroke which interrupts blood flow to an area of the brain can be fatal sometimes. The types are: . Haemorrhagic stroke: bleeding occurs in the brain tissue due to rupture of a cerebral artery . Ischaemic stroke caused by atherosclerosis: blockage of an artery due to progressive thickening of its wallsresulting obstruction of blood supply to the brain. . Ischaemic stroke caused by embolism: blockage of an artery due to blood clots or embolus (Better Health Channel 2016). Definition of Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) A Cerebrovascular accident is the medical term for a stroke. It is a condition of sudden onset of one or more neurological deficits which occurs resulting from the interruption of blood flow to a part of the brain resulting in reduced cerebral blood supply (Pellico 2013, p. 1245). In CVA, the damaged part of the brain determines which cerebral artery is affected. 1. a CVA occurring in the anterior cerebral artery affects the motor and sensory cortex 2. a CVA occurring in the middle cerebral artery affects the speech and auditory functions 3. a CVA involving the posterior cerebral artery affects the visual cortex, and the limbic system 4. loss of blood supply via the basilar artery may partly be compensated for by blood passing through the circle of willis. Nevertheless, damage for the cerebellum and brainstem can be severe. Loss of brainstem functions will also affect the autonomic control Question:

This is my question for the case study:

Case Study 2 – Greta Balodis One of Greta’s close friends from the Latvian club has a daughter who is a second year student nurse. Greta has asked if you can explain the pathophysiology of a Cerebro Vascular Accident (stroke) and how it affects the central nervous system to her friend’s daughter, as she doesn’t understand and has an exam approaching. Greta has given her permission for you to use her as an example. Please explain the pathophysiology of a Cerebro Vascular Accident (stroke) and how it affects the central nervous system using the correct medical and nursing terminology.

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2. you need to demonstrate a clear understanding of the A and P, the pathophysiology and pharmacology involved within your case.

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