Please read pages 104-106 for Kohlberg and Gilligan, then pages 98-101 for Erikson’s psychosocial tasks at different stages of life.

Most of us have asked ourselves the question “Who am I?” at one point or another in our lives. Coon et al.(2019) discuss the difficulties teenagers face in establishing their own identity: “Many problems stem from the unclear standards about the role adolescents should play within society” (p. 110). Our text also explains that teenagers experience ambiguity, or unclear interpretations when defining their roles. This adds to their confusion of a clear and solid sense of self.

More and more often we are seeing cases presented in the media about teens who have taken their own lives as a result of bullying and cyberbullying (Wang, 2016). Coon et al. (2019) have argued that adolescence is a tumultuous time. However, Karen Horney’s theory explains that basic anxiety occurs because we live in a hostile world. An example is Wang’s report of a suicide by a 13-year-old girl in response to racial and social prejudice against perceived sexual orientation.

How much does emotional turbulence versus social hostility count as an explanation for teen suicide? Or is it a combination of the two?

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Drawing upon Kohlberg’s theory of stages of moral development, Gilligan’s theory of caring, and Erikson’s psychosocial stages theory, discuss reasons why an adolescent might turn to suicide. Then, using one of these theories, suggest how to help a teen who has been a victim of bullying.


Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., & Martini, T. (2019). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior (15th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Wang, Y. (2016). After years of alleged bullying, an Ohio teen killed herself. Is her school district responsible? The Washington Post. Retrieved from



Suicide cases have emerged as one of the leading sources of death among adolescents. A report by CDC shows that suicide is the third leading source of death among adolescents aged between 10 to 14. However, males and females exhibit different suicide behaviors. This essay evaluates the various causes of suicide and how to help teens that have been victims of bullying.

How much emotional turbulence and social hostility can count as an explanation for teen suicide

The report by Wang (2016) and Coon et al. (2019) show that cases of teen suicide are as a result of both emotional turbulence and social hostility. In life, teens struggle to get their identity and the role they need to play in society. Furthermore, most of them find too much pressure on their shoulders, especially regarding what society expects of them. Other than emotional stress, cases of social hostility also compound to the pressure they already feel. Instances of bullying and discrimination depict the social animosity that adolescents have to contend with. When most fail to recognize who they are, suicide becomes an option.

Why adolescents may turn to suicide According to Kohlberg’s theory of stages of moral development, Gilligan’s theory of caring, and Erikson’s psychosocial stages theory, many reasons make adolescents opt for suicide. The first reason is external pressure and expectations. At the pre-conventional level in Kohlberg’s theory, a child is much influenced by external pressure. Such pressure may be too much for the teens hence subjecting them to suicide. Another source is perfectionism. As youth transition from one stage to another, their behavior…

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