Renal System

Identify the 4 functions of the kidneys. Within your answer, discuss how the processes of excretion and reabsorption occur and the substances involved.


Renal System

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Functions of the Kidney

Kidneys are among the most crucial organs in the body. When kidneys fail to work properly, it may lead to serious health problems or even death. One of the most significant roles of the kidneys is to maintain homeostasis (Lumen, n.d.). Homeostasis is the process that maintains the internal stability of living organisms despite external changes. In other words, it helps in managing levels of the fluid, balance of the electrolytes, among other things that maintain the balance of the internal environment of the body. The main functions of …

Remove Nitrogenous Wastes

Kidneys work the same way that filters do to expel excess fluid from the body. The kidneys sieve approximately 200 quarts of blood every day to generate 1 to 2 quarts of urine containing excess fluid and wastes.

Controlling Blood Pressure

Kidneys control the body’s blood pressure by creating changes in the extracellular fluid. The kidneys release the vasoconstrictor hormone that narrows blood vessels, thereby increasing the absorption rate of sodium chloride (Lumen. n.d.). This process raises the extracellular fluid compartments raising the blood pressure.

Active Compounds Secretion

The kidneys secrete the erythropoietin hormone that instructs the bone marrow to create red blood cells. They also produce renin, which is responsible for expanding the arteries and the blood plasma volume, interstitial, and lymph fluid. Lymph fluid contains white blood cells that boost the immune system. Moreover, they also secret calcitriol which increases the calcium amount that the intestines can absorb as well as phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys (Robertson, 2019).

pH Maintenance

The kidney is responsible for maintaining the pH level between 7.38 and 7.42 below which the body enters acidemia and above which it enters alkalemia (Robertson, 2019). Beyond this range, the body cannot breakdown enzymes and protein, which could end up in fatality. The kidneys do this through reabsorption and excretion processes.

Regulating Osmolality Osmolality measures the electrolyte-water equilibrium. In the case of dehydration, the kidneys secrete the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that makes the kidneys to increase the concentration of the urine and reabsorption of water, retain urine in the medulla as it draws water, and reopening parts of the collecting…

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